Bloom’s Taxonomy

Working with Bloom’s Taxonomy

Bloom’s taxonomy is likely the model most frequently used by educators who want to develop their students higher level thinking skills. Anderson and Krathwohl103 recently updated and revised the original 6-level version of Bloom’s Taxonomy. The new version has 6 cognitive processes (with slight adjustments to the original names), as well as a content dimension made up of 4 types of knowledge. It is presented as a matrix.

COGNITIVE PROCESSES
Remember Understand Apply Analyze Evaluate Create
Types Of Knowledge
(content)
Factual
Conceptual
Procedural
Metacognitive

The complexity of thinking involved in the cognitive processes increases from left to right, however evaluating and creating may switch positions in some activities. The types of content also increase in abstractness and complexity from top (factual) to bottom (metacognitive). Therefore, tasks with simpler content and processes will be found in cells in the top left corner while more complex tasks will be in the cells in the lower right.

Many educators continue to work with the original version, or only use the processes from the new version. This still works, however the benefits of differentiating the thinking process are enhanced when the content becomes more abstract or complex.. Most often, this occurs automatically during the planning process, without a special effort to make it happen. More complicated ways of thinking are well-suited to more complicated material.

A copy of the matrix filled with sample activities provided in each cell is provided in Appendix B. Examine the shifts in the content and processes in the tasks as you look across the rows and down the columns. Think about the possibilities in any content area by substituting that subject in place of fruit. Some will work, some will need work.